Background and Objective: Micronutrient deficiencies among females has posed both health and economic challenges in the developing countries of the world. The present study assessed the prevalence of anaemia and vitamin A deficiency among females in urban and riverine rural communities in Anambra State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 586 females aged 15-45 years participated in the study. The participants filled a self-reported questionnaire which covered items related to anaemia, vitamin A and frequency of consumption of iron and vitamin A rich foods. Serum iron and retinol levels of sub-sample of participants were measured. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data using SPSS, version 22. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Results showed that 40.0% of the respondents were retinol deficient. More than half (63.3%) were anaemic out of which 26.6 and 5.0% had moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. About 46.0% of the urban respondents had low serum retinol compared to 33.3% of their rural counterparts. There was no significant (p>0.05) relationship between location and the respondents’ serum retinol and iron status. Overall, daily consumptions of meat, fish and vegetables were low in the urban and riverine rural communities (24.7% vs. 21.7%, 20.3% vs. 28.0% and 51.3% vs 48.2%, respectively). Many (78.7%) respondents in riverine rural area reported skipping meals. Conclusion: Anaemia, vitamin A deficiency and low consumption of micronutrient rich foods were observed among the respondents. Behaviour change communication is required to improve the micronutrient status of the women.
V.N. Ibeanu, P.N. Ani, B.N. Eme and C.O. Anoshirike, 2021. Pervasiveness of Anaemia and Vitamin A Deficiency among Females Aged 15-45 Years in Urban and Riverine Rural Areas of Anambra State, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 20: 119-126.