Background and Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a health condition associated with several factors including central obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, (low HDL-C, hypertriglyceridaemia) and elevated blood pressure. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of clustering of these factors in diabetes, hypertension (HBP), chronic kidney disease, (CKD) and apparently healthy subjects, (AH), with the MS. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 531 subjects including 174 diabetics, 136 hypertensive, 84 with CKD and 137 apparently healthy (37-72 years of age) participated in this study. Fasting plasma glucose level and lipids were analyzed while waist circumference and blood pressure was measured using standard procedures. MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education/Adult Treatment Panel 111, (ATP 111), criteria. Graphs and logical binary regression were utilized to assess the validity of each parameter and metabolic syndrome. Results: Frequency of MS in this study were 68, 47, 35 and 26% for diabetes, hypertension, CKD and AH subjects respectively. Among the subjects with the MS, 52, 71, 65.5 and 78.8% of DM, HBP, CKD and AH subjects had three factors; correspondingly 39.7, 27.4, 34.5 and 21.2% had four factors and 8.2, 1.6, 0, 0 had five factors. Central obesity was diagnosed in 96, 76, 60 and 61%; hyperglycaemia was diagnosed in 100, 65, 76 and 77%; hypertriglyceridaemia was diagnosed in 82, 73, 54 and 43%; low HDL-C in 88, 85, 65 and 52% while elevated blood pressure was diagnosed in 84, 100, 43 and 36% of the DM, HBP, CKD and AH subjects with the MS respectively. Conclusion: Results suggested that MS could be caused by the central obesity and since waist circumference can easily and accurately be measured, it is an easier and definite method of screening for the MS in the population.
Okeke, Nduka Jude, I.S.I. Ogbu, Felix Edegbe, Eze Clementina N. and Obi Ihuoma A., 2021. Pattern of Risk Factors Clustering Among Diabetes, Hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease and Apparently Healthy Subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 20: 112-118.