Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has appeared as an epidemic disease globally in the last few years. The nanotechnology has providing management, treatment and insulin delivery modalities which potential to improve quality of life for diabetics. Recent development in the field of diabetic treatment research at its line with nanotechnology is great attention to explore their benefits. Materials and Methods: In this study, experimental mice are induce with type 1 diabetes after streptozotocin (STZ) inoculation of 60 mg kg1 of body weight for 5 days. Then, the diabetes-induced mice were divided into different groups: (1) treated with insulin as a traditional treatment, (2) treated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP) 1.5 mg kg1 b.wt./day and (3) treated with nanoceria 50 mg kg1 b.wt. by intraperitoneal inoculation for 25 days. Results: Our data clearly showed a hypoglycemic effect, by which blood glucose level (BGL) decreased to 140±6.84 and 140.90±6.74 from 236.60±16.48 mg dL1 in groups treated with AuNP and nanoceria, respectively. Moreover, a significant improvement observed in serum liver enzymes and insulin level with a marked decrease in the pancreatic level of inflammatory cytokines, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-beta 1 (IL-1β). Confirming the previous results showed a marked improvement in pancreatic islet cells, with a lower percentage of apoptosis in groups treated with AuNP and nanoceria. Conclusion: AuNPs and nanoceria have a distinct and effective role in lowering glucose levels, with a marked improvement in blood insulin level. In addition, a marked improvement in pancreatic islet cells observed and confirmed by diminishing percentage of apoptosis in the treated groups. This role has a potential therapeutic use for humans in the future.
Jameel Alghamdi and Mohamed F. El-Refaei, 2020. Effects of Gold and Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Type 1 Diabetes in Experimental Mice. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 23: 959-967.