Background and Objective: Flavonols in plants are catalyzed by flavonol synthase (FLS) enzyme. FLS was reported expressed in flowers and fruits, i.e., Dianthus caryophyllus L. (Caryophyllaceae), Petunia hybrida Hort. (Solanaceae), Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Brassicaceae), Citrus unshiu Marc. (Rutaceae). However, none reported about FLS in medicinal plants, particularly those which possess anti-inflammatory activity. This study was aimed to extract and identify FLS in the rhizome of Boesenbergia rotunda (Zingiberaceae) and to determine quercetin in the ethanol extract of the rhizome. Materials and Methods: The protein extraction of the rhizome was carried out by employing Laing and Christeller’s (2004) and Wang’s (2014) methods. The extracted-proteins were separated by using SDS-PAGE, followed by the measurement of FLS intensity by using Gel Analyzer. The FLS-1 of recombinant A. thaliana was employed as the standard. The determination of quercetin in the rhizome was carried out using LC-MS. Results: The FLS occurred as a thick band at 38 kDa with intensity 116-158. The LC chromatogram of the extract indicated a small peak at 7.94 min similar to that of quercetin standard. The MS spectra at 7.94 min indicated that quercetin is present in the B. rotunda rhizome (m/z = 303.0549). The concentration of quercetin in the extract is 0.022% w/v. Conclusion: The FLS, an enzyme which plays an important role in producing quercetin, was detected in B. rotunda rhizome planted in Indonesia. As a consequence, quercetin in a small amount, was also quantified in the rhizome of this plant. This report will add a scientific insight of B. rotunda for biological sciences.
Aziiz Mardanarian Rosdianto, Irma Melyani Puspitasari, Ronny Lesmana and Jutti Levita, 2020. Determination of Quercetin and Flavonol Synthase in Boesenbergia rotunda Rhizome. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 23: 264-270.