Journal of Applied Sciences

Journal of Applied Sciences seeks to promote and disseminate the knowledge by publishing original research findings, review articles and short communications in the broad field of applied sciences. Scope of the journal includes: Biology, chemistry, physics, environmental, business and economics, finance, mathematics and statistics, geology, engineering, computer science, social sciences, natural and technological sciences, linguistics, medicine and architecture, food science, environmental science, agricultural engineering. Journal of Applied Sciences now accepting new submissions. Submit your best paper via online submission system.


Gazi Mahabubul Alam

Professor Gazi Mahabubul Alam, PhD, FRSA is an internationally recognized Public Policy Analyst with an especial focus to Higher Education and Skills Development. Countries of his work experience include Malaysia, Bangladesh, UK, Canada and the USA. He works for both institute of Higher Education and Partner for Development. He is currently imparting the role of President of Centre For Asian Climate and Environmental Policy Studies, (CACEPS), Waterloo University, University Avenue West, Windsor, Canada. Moreover, he is a Professor of Education Policy and Economics at the UPM, Selangor. Professor Alam also served as a Professor of Public Policy and Chief Consultant at the Academic Performance Enhancement Unit, University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia. Prior to join with the UM, he worked as a policy specialist (skills) at the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Professor Alam also served as the President and Vice-president of Asian Council of Science Editors (ACSE). Upon completion of the tenure, he currently holds the post of Chief Advisor to the Board of Governors of the ACSE. His adjunct role in Bangladesh includes a number of institutions of higher education such East West University, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh Open University and Dhaka University. He is one of the main contributors of National Skills development Policy- Bangladesh. Alam acquired a Master degree with a particular focus in International Education and Development from the University of Sussex, UK and a PhD from the University of Nottingham, UK. He received a distinguished fellowship (FRSA) from the Royal Society of Arts, UK. He has published a number of papers and they received a notable amount of citation. His recent contributions are included in some high ranked journals such as Comparative Education Review (CER)-University of Chicago, Technological Forecasting and Social Change-Elsevier, Higher Education-Springer, International Journal of Educational Reforms-Sage, Business Process Management Journal-Emerald.

Regional Editors

Mosaad Attia Abdel-Wahhab

Head of Department/Professor, National Research Center, Egypt

Rajarshi Kumar Gaur

Professor, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Ramasamy Ponalagusamy

Professor(HAG), Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

Azhari Hamid Nour Abduelrahman

Professor and Researcher, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan

L. Ammayappan

Senior Scientist, National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, India

Mebrouk Kihal

Research Director and Professor, University of Oran 1 Ahmed Ben Bella, Algeria

Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

Assistant Professor, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia

Gamal A. El-Hiti

Professor, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Matthew Olaleke Aremu

Professor, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lafia, Nigeria

Seyed Taghi Akhavan Niaki

Professor, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Doina Humelnicu

Professor, Department of Chemistry, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Iasi, Romania

Associate Editors

Fook Yee Chye

Associate Professor, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Ayman A. El-Badry

Professor, Department of Microbiology, Medical Parasitology Section, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Amjad Daifalla Al-Nasser

Professor, Department of Statistics, Yarmouk University, Jordan

Atef Mohamed El-Taher

Professor, Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

izzet yavuz

Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Dentistry, Dicle University, Turkey

Haytham Mahmoud Mohamad Daradka

Associate Professor, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jarash Private University, Jordan

Wan Muhamad Amir Bin W Ahmad

Lecturer, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

Suleyman Korkut

Professor, Duzce University, Turkey

Sunday Joshua Ojolo

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos, AkokaYaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao

Associate Professor, University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

M. Siva Ram Kumar

Assistant Professor, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education (KAHE), India

Hayder B. Sahib

Deputy Dean and Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Al- Nahrain University, Iraq

Nagarajan Yogananth

Assistant Professor, PG and Research Department of Biotechnology Mohamed Sathak College of Arts and Science, Sholinganallur, Chennai, India

Ganiyat Kehinde Oloyede

Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Nahed Fawzy Abdel -Aziz Abdel-Moneim

Associate Professor, National Research Centre, Egypt

Prabhu Britto Albert

Professor, Vinayaka Missions Kirupananda Variyar, Engineering College, India

Khalid Zaki Elwakeel

Professor, Port-Said University, Egypt

Sanaa Ahmed Ali Ibrahim

Professor, Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre Dokki, Giza, Egypt

Kayode Adebisi Arowora

Research Scientist, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, P.M.B. 1020, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

Azza Abdel Gawad Tantawy

Professor, Ain Shams University, Egypt

Mohamed Ahmed El-Esawi

Associate Professor, Tanta University, Egypt

Technical Editors

Srinivasan Alavandar

Professor and Dean, Agni College of Technology, India

Medhat Mohamed El-Moselhy

Professor, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

Adeshina Fadeyibi

Senior Lecturer, Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria

Afsin Sahin

Professor, Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University, Turkey

Rocco Furferi

Associate Professor, University of Florence, Italy

Amer Nizar Fayez Abu Ali

Associate Professor, Philadelphia University, Jordan

Moustafa Mohammed Sabry Bakry

Research Scientist, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

Shaker Mohamed Arafat

Professor, Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt

Jae Jun Lee

Senior Researcher, Osong medical innovation foundation, South Korea

Faten Abdul Rahman Fuad Khorshid

Professor, Department of Biological Science, King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia

Shanmugavadivelu Chandra Mohan

Director/ Research Scientist, Shanmuga Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India

Paul Ocheje Ameh

Senior Lecturer, Nigeria Police Academy, Nigeria

Ragip Adiguzel

Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Process Technologies/Laboratory Technology Program, Vocational School of Tunceli, Munzur University, 62000 Tunceli, Turkey

Ferit Gurbuz

Associate Professor , Department of Mathematics Education, Faculty of Education, Hakkari University, Turkey

Jay Prakash Verma

Assistant Professor, Banaras Hindu University, India

Mustafizur Rahman

Associate Professor, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia

Tawatchai Tanee

Lecturer, Mahasarakham University, Thailand

Hussein Kamel Abd El-Maksoud

Professor, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

Neeraj Kumar Sethiya

Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacy, DIT University, Dehra Dūn, Uttarakhand, India

V. Kalaigandhi

Associate Professor, Dr. GRD College of Arts and Science, India

Mosbeh Rashed Mosbeh Kaloop

Associate Professor, Mansoura University, Egypt

Sobhy Ahmed Azab El Sohaimy

Professor and HOD, Food Technology Department, Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Application, Universities and Research Centers District, P.O. Box: 21934, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt

Harish Garg

Associate Professor, Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Deemed University, Patiala, Punjab,India

Nermin Berik

Associate Professor, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey

Yu Li

Professor, Wuhan University of Technology, China

Mohammad bin Awang

Senior Lecturer, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia

Onojake, Mudiaga C.

Senior Lecturer, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Teo Swee Sen

Assistant Professor, UCSI University, Malaysia

Hassimi Abu Hasan

Senior Lecturer, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

Anouar Ben Mabrouk

Assistant Professor, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

Omwoyo Wesley Nyaigoti

Lecturer, Maasai Mara University, Kenya

Ammar A. Labib

Professor of Chemistry, Photospectroscopy Lab, Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Siti Mazlina Mustapa Kamal

Associate Professor, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

Rambabu Busi

Professor and Head, Lakireddy Bali Reddy College of Engineering, India

K. Sundar

Technical Director, Department of Food Science and Technology, Pondicherry Central University, Puducherry, India

Vimalanathan Arunprasanna

Research Analyst, R&D Division, Masa Pest Management, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Emad Jalal Akawwi

Professor, Surveying & Geomatics Department, AlBalqa’ Applied University, Al Salt, 19117, Jordan

Saad Abdel-Hamid El-Sayed Hamad

Professor, Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Egypt

Syed Maqbool Geelani

Lecturer, Institute of Advanced Studies in Education, India

Khaled M. Elattar

Lecturer, Department of Botany, Mansoura University, Egypt

Jie Ma

Associate Professor, Tongji University, China

Sinem Gokturk

Professor, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey

Daya Shankar Mishra

Assistant Professor, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, India

Hng Paik San

Associate Professor, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

Shaoyong Ke

Research Scientist, National Biopesticide Engineering Research Center, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science , Wuhan , 430064 , People's Republic of China

Seyed Saeid Rahimian Koloor

Lecturer, Technical University of Liberec

Surekha P

Associate Professor, Amrita School of Engineering, Bangalore, India

Davut Ozbag

Professor, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of İnönü, Turkey

Sayed Ali Mohamed Hassan

Associate Professor, Tissue Culture Technique Lab, Central Laboratory Network and Pomology Department, Agricultural and Biology Division, National Research Centre, Egypt

C. Sujatha

Professor, SSM Institute of Engineering and Technology, India

Dalia Anwar Hamza


Jakir Hossen

Senior Lecturer, Multimedia University (MMU), Melaka, Malaysia

Olawale Paul Olatidoye

Senior Lecturer, Department of Food Technology, School of Technology, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

Shankar Karuppannan

Assistant Professor, Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia

Alvaro Gonzalez Angeles

Research Scientist, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexico