Journal of Applied Sciences

Journal of Applied Sciences seeks to promote and disseminate the knowledge by publishing original research findings, review articles and short communications in the broad field of applied sciences. Scope of the journal includes: Biology, chemistry, physics, environmental, business and economics, finance, mathematics and statistics, geology, engineering, computer science, social sciences, natural and technological sciences, linguistics, medicine and architecture, food science, environmental science, agricultural engineering. Journal of Applied Sciences now accepting new submissions. Submit your best paper via online submission system.


Gazi Mahabubul Alam

Professor Gazi Mahabubul Alam, PhD, FRSA is an internationally recognized Public Policy Analyst with an especial focus to Higher Education and Skills Development. Countries of his work experience include Malaysia, Bangladesh, UK, Canada and the USA. He works for both institute of Higher Education and Partner for Development. He is currently imparting the role of President of Centre For Asian Climate and Environmental Policy Studies, (CACEPS), Waterloo University, University Avenue West, Windsor, Canada. Moreover, he is a Professor of Education Policy and Economics at the UPM, Selangor. Professor Alam also served as a Professor of Public Policy and Chief Consultant at the Academic Performance Enhancement Unit, University of Malaya (UM), Malaysia. Prior to join with the UM, he worked as a policy specialist (skills) at the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Professor Alam also served as the President and Vice-president of Asian Council of Science Editors (ACSE). Upon completion of the tenure, he currently holds the post of Chief Advisor to the Board of Governors of the ACSE. His adjunct role in Bangladesh includes a number of institutions of higher education such East West University, Bangladesh University of Professionals, Bangladesh Open University and Dhaka University. He is one of the main contributors of National Skills development Policy- Bangladesh. Alam acquired a Master degree with a particular focus in International Education and Development from the University of Sussex, UK and a PhD from the University of Nottingham, UK. He received a distinguished fellowship (FRSA) from the Royal Society of Arts, UK. He has published a number of papers and they received a notable amount of citation. His recent contributions are included in some high ranked journals such as Comparative Education Review (CER)-University of Chicago, Technological Forecasting and Social Change-Elsevier, Higher Education-Springer, International Journal of Educational Reforms-Sage, Business Process Management Journal-Emerald.

Regional Editors

Rengarajan Amirtharajan

Professor, SASTRA Deemed University, India

Aws Alaa Zaidan

Senior Lecturer, University Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia

Azhari Hamid Nour Abduelrahman

Associate Professor, University Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia

Reza Farzipoor Saen

Professor, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Rajarshi Kumar Gaur

Professor, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Gamal A. El-Hiti

Professor, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Hazizan Md. Akil

Professor, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

Mebrouk Kihal

Research Director and Professor, University of Oran 1 Ahmed Ben Bella, Algeria

L. Ammayappan

Senior Scientist, National Institute of Research on Jute and Allied Fibre Technology, India

Matthew Olaleke Aremu

Professor, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria

Madjid Eshaghi Gordji

Associate Professor, Semnan University, Iran

Mosaad Attia Abdel-Wahhab

Head of Academic Department/Faculty, National Research Center, Egypt

Seyed Taghi Akhavan Niaki

Professor, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Md. Rabiul Islam

Associate Professor, University of Utara Malaysia, Malaysia

Ramasamy Ponalagusamy

Professor, National Institute of Technology, India

Muhammad Sabbir Rahman

Senior Lecturer, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia

Sher Afghan Khan

Research Director/VP of Research, Pace College of Engineering, India

Somchai Amornyotin

Associate Professor, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand

Saeed Olyaee

Professor, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran

Associate Editors

Amjad Daifalla Al-Nasser

Professor, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

Kayode Adebisi Arowora

Research Scientist, Federal University Wukari, Nigeria

Atef Mohamed El-Taher

Professor, Al-Azhar University, Egypt

Ayman A. El-Badry

Professor, College of Medicine & King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. - kasr Al-Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Azza Abdel Gawad Tantawy

Professor, Ain Shams University, Egypt

Nagarajan Yogananth

Assistant Professor, Mohamed Sathak College of Arts and Science, India

Chua Lee Suan

Senior Scientist, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Mohamed Ahmed El-Esawi

Associate Professor, Tanta University, Egypt

Emmanuel Edet Etim

Lecturer, University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria.

Federica Pellati

Assistant Professor, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy

Fabian I. Ezema

Research Scientist, University of Nigeria, Nigeria

Fook Yee Chye

Associate Professor, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Mouhsine Galai

Research Scientist, Ibn Tofail University, Morocco

Tony Hadibarata

Senior Lecturer, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia

Hayder B. Sahib

Deputy Dean, Al-Nahrain University, Iraq

Haytham Mahmoud Mohamad Daradka

Associate Professor, Jarash Private University, Jordan

Izzet Yavuz

Professor, Dicle University, Turkey

Khalid Zaki Elwakeel

Associate Professor, Port-Said University, Egypt

Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari


Duduku Krishnaiah

Associate Professor, University of Monastir, Tunisia

Mohammad Saleh Al-Haggar

Professor, Mansoura University, Egypt

Sunday Joshua Ojolo

Associate Professor, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Ganiyat Kehinde Oloyede

Senior Lecturer , University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Prabhu Britto Albert

Professor, Vinayaka Missions Kirupananda Variyar, Engineering College, India

Sanaa Ahmed Ali Ibrahim

Professor, National Research Center, Egypt

Sanaa T. El-Sayed

Professor, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

M. Siva Ram Kumar


Seifedine Kadry

Professor, Beirut Arab University, Lebanon

Suleyman Korkut

Professor, Duzce University, Turkey

Jonnalagadda Venkateswara Rao

Professor, United States International University Africa, Kenya

Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao

Associate Professor, University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

Wan Muhamad Amir Bin W Ahmad

Lecturer, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

Mansour Zarra-Nezhad

Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran

Technical Editors

Mohammed Adam Yahya Abdualrahman

Assistant Professor, Nyala Technical College, Sudan

Adeshina Fadeyibi

Senior Lecturer, Kwara State University, Nigeria

Ragip Adiguzel

Associate Professor, Munzur University, Turkey

Afsin Sahin

Professor, Ankara Haci Bayram Veli University, Turkey

Aurangzeb Khurram Hafiz

Associate Professor, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India

Akhilesh Kumar

Assistant Professor, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Deemed University, Agra

Amal Ahmed Hassan Saleh

Professor, Suez Canal University, Egypt

Ammar A. Labib

Professor of Chemistry, National Research Centre, Egypt

Andrzej Komosa

Assistant Professor, Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Lublin

Anouar Ben Mabrouk

Assistant Professor, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia

Anzel Bahadir

Associate Professor, Duzce University, Turkey

Anoop Singh

Post-doctoral Fellow, University of Denmark, UK

Guochang Wu

Assistant Professor, Henan University, China

Vimalanathan Arunprasanna

Research Scientist, Zhejiang Univeristy

Aslan Azizi

Research Scientist, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Iran

Bahaa El-Din Ahmed Hemdan

Researcher, National Research Centre, Egypt

C. Bharatiraja

Assistant Professor, SRM University, India

Charles Ogugua Nwuche

Senior Lecturer, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Shun Hsing Chen

Professor, Oriental Institute of Technology, Taiwan

Jianwei Cheng

Associate Professor, China University of Mining and Technology, China

Chih-Kai Chen

Professor, National Taipei University of Education, Taiwan

Shanmugavadivelu Chandra Mohan

Director/ Research Scientist, Shanmuga Centre for Medicinal Plants Research, India

Dalia Anwar Hamza

Associate professor, Cairo University, Egypt

Davut Ozbag

Associate Professor, University of İnönü, Turkey

Deepak Kumar Nayak

Associate Professor, Koneru Lakshmaiah Education Foundation, Vaddeswaram, Guntur, India

Amer Nizar Fayez Abu Ali

Associate Professor, Philadelphia University, Jordan

Taghreed Hashim Al-Noor

Professor, Ibn-Al-Haitham Education College , University of Baghdad, Iraq

Shaker Mohamed Arafat

Professor, Agriculture Research Centre, Egypt

Daya Shankar Mishra

Assistant Professor, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, India

Dyah Iswantini

Professor, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Sayed Ali Mohamed Hassan

Associate Professor, National Research Center, Egypt

Emad Jalal Akawwi

Professor, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan

Sobhy Ahmed Azab El Sohaimy

Professor and HOD, City for Science and Technology Applications, Egypt

Ernest Uzodimma Durugbo

Senior Lecturer, Redeemers University, Nigeria

Mohammad Fadhli Ahmad

Associate Professor, Univerity Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia

Faten Abdul Rahman Fuad Khorshid

Professor, King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia

Faiyaz Ahmed

Director and Head, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

Ferit Gurbuz

Associate Professor , Hakkari University, Turkey

T.R. Ganesh Babu

Professor, Muthayammal Engineering College, India

Alvaro Gonzalez Angeles

Research Scientist, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexico

Syed Maqbool Geelani

Lecturer, Institute of Advanced Studies in Education, India

Karuppannan Shankar

Assistant Professor, Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia

Oyeyemi Gafar Matanmi

Senior Lecturer, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

Haider Ismael Shahadi AL-Mayaly

Assistant Professor, University of Kerbala, Iraq

Hanan Moawia Ibrahim

Associate Professor, International University of Africa, Sudan

Harish Garg

Assistant Professor, Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Deemed University, Patiala, Punjab,India

Hussein Kamel Abd El-Maksoud

Professor, Cario University, Egypt

Seyed Rohollah Hoseini Vaez

Assistant Professor, University of Qom, Iran

Mohammad Abul Hossain

Professor, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

Zhao-Guang Hu

Research Director, State Grid Energy Research Institute, China

Huynh Viet Khai

Lecturer, Can Tho University, Vietnam

Izuchukwu Ignatius Obiadi

Research Scientist, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria

Abah James

Associate Professor, University of Namibia, Namibia

Jakir Hossen

Senior Lecturer, Multimedia University (MMU), Melaka, Malaysia

Jihad Hasan Jabali Asad

Head and Professor, Palestine Technical University, Kadoorie, Tulkarm, Palestine

J. Jeyakodi Moses

Associate Professor, PSG College of Technology, India

Jae Jun Lee

Senior Researcher, Osong medical innovation foundation, South Korea

Jie Ma

Associate Professor, Tongji University, China

Shaoyong Ke

Research Scientist, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Khaled M. Elattar

Lecturer, Sert University, Turkey

Khurram Mehboob

Associate Professor, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

Soleiman Mohamamdi Limaei

Professor, University of Guilan, Iran

Chun Chu Liu

Research Scientist, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan

V. Kalaigandhi

Associate Professor, Dr. GRD College of Arts and Science, India

A. Manimaran

Assistant Professor, Vellore Institute of Technology, India

Moustafa Mohammed Sabry Bakry

Research Scientist, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt

Medhat Moustafa El-Sayed

Assistant Professor, Nuclear Research Center, Egypt

Medhat Mohamed El-Moselhy

Professor, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia

Mervat Ibrahim Foda

Professor, National Research Center, Egypt

Moamin A. Mahmoud

Research Scientist, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia

Mohammad bin Awang

Senior Lecturer, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia

Mohammad Azamthulla

Assistant Professor, Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences MSR Nagar Bangalore, India

Mojdeh Hakemi Vala

Lecturer, Shaheed Behehsti University, Iran

Mosbeh Rashed Mosbeh Kaloop

Associate Professor, Mansoura University, Egypt

Murat Sari

Assistant Professor, Yildiz Technical University, Turkey

Muna Sabah Kassim

Assistant Professor, Al Mustansiriya University, Iraq

Svetlana A. Mustafina

Dean, Professor, Bashkir State University, Russia

Mustafizur Rahman

Associate Professor, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia

Nastaran Parsafard

Assistant Professor, Kosar University of Bojnord, Iran

Naveen Samuel Singh

Associate Professor, Lucknow Christian College, Lucknow University, India

Nermin Berik

Associate Professor, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey

Hng Paik San

Associate Professor, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

Paul Ocheje Ameh

Senior Lecturer, Nigeria Police Academy, Nigeria

Nooritawati Md. Tahir

Associate Professor, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia

Neeraj Kumar Sethiya

Senior Innovation Fellow, The M S University of Baroda, India

Anthony Ekata Ogbeibu

Professor, University of Benin, Nigeria

Onojake, Mudiaga C.

Senior Lecturer, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Patrick Akata Nwofe

Senior Lecturer, Ebonyi State University, Nigeria

Mohammed Abdalla Hussein

Professor, October 6 University, Egypt

R`afat Mahmoud Mohamad Nejem

Assistant Professor, Al-Aqsa University, Palestine

Rezzan Kasim

Associate Professor, Kocaeli University, Turkey

Robert Jankowski

Professor, Gdansk University of Technology, Poland

Rocco Furferi

Associate Professor, University of Florence, Italy

Rudrarup Gupta

Commercial Manager, Multifarious Projects Group, India

Seyed Saeid Rahimian Koloor

Lecturer, Technical University of Liberec

Sandeep Sachdeva

Research Scientist, Global Data Communications, London

Santosh Kumar Nanda

Professor, Eastern Academy of Science and Technology, India

Srinivasan Alavandar

Professor and Dean, Agni College of Technology, India

Saad Abdel-Hamid El-Sayed Hamad

Professor, Zagazig University, Egypt

Hassimi Abu Hasan

Senior Lecturer, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

Sinem Gokturk

Associate Professor, University of Marmara, Turkey

Siti Mazlina Mustapa Kamal

Associate Professor, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

C. Sujatha

Professor, SSM Institute of Engineering and Technology, India

Gangavarapu Subrahmanyam

Research Scientist, Central Muga Eri Research Institute, Cinamora, India

K. Sundar

Head and Associate Professor, Pondicherry Central University, India

Surekha P

Associate Professor, Amrita School of Engineering, Bangalore, India

Tawatchai Tanee

Lecturer, Mahasarakham University, Thailand

Teo Swee Sen

Assistant Professor, UCSI University, Malaysia

Jay Prakash Verma

Assistant Professor, Banaras Hindu University, India

Vivek Kumar Morya

Assistant Professor, Inha University, Korea

Vhahangwele Masindi

Research Scientist, Magalies Water, South Africa

Olawale Paul Olatidoye

Lecturer, Yaba College of Technology, Nigeria

Weihua Zhang

Research Scientist, Radiation Protection Bureau of Health, Canada

Omwoyo Wesley Nyaigoti

Lecturer, Maasai Mara University, Kenya

Xiaoguang Yue

Adjunct Professor, European university Cyprus

Seung Man Yu

Assistant Professor , Seoul National University of Science and Technology, South Korea

Yu Li

Professor, Wuhan University of Technology, China

Ahmad Zia Ul-Saufie Mohamad Japeri

Associate Professor, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Malaysia