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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Research Article
Evaluation of Genotoxic Potential of Heavy Metal in a Proteinaceous Crop (Lens culinaris Medik) in Aspect to Cyto-morphological Parameters
Durre Shahwar, M.Y.K. Ansari and Sana Choudhary
Background and Objective: Induce mutagenesis are known to induce variation in germplasm of plants for crop improvement programmes and as alternative to hybridization and recombination in plant breeding. The present study aimed to determine effects of lead (Pb) on cyto-morphological and growth parameters of lentil in M1 generation. Materials and Methods: Germplasm of lentil were treated with different doses (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm) of lead nitrate. Different traits of control and mutagenized population was screened time to time and statistical analysis such as mean, Standard Deviation (SD), Coefficient of Variation (CV%) and Least Significant Difference (LSD at 1 and 5% level) were done. Results: Different qualitative and quantitative traits of control and treated population of M1 generation were observed. Morphological parameters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, pollen fertility and yield was significantly reduced and showed variation in plant at the seedling stage as well as at mature stages. In addition to this, lead affected the pairing of homologous chromosomes with increasing concentration of lead nitrate percentage of chromosomal abnormalities also increase. Various types of meiotic lesion were recorded such as univalents, multivalent, laggards, bridges, stickiness, stray bivalent, disturbed polarity, precocious separation etc. Conclusion: Lower concentration of lead did not significantly affect the cytological and morphological parameters of lentil whereas higher concentrations of lead nitrate were found to be more genotoxic and mutagenic.
Research Article
Characterization of Putative Lipase Gene from Alcaligenes sp. JG3 Bacterium via Cloning
Norman Yoshi Haryono, Winarto Haryadi and Tri Joko Raharjo
Background and Objective: Alcaligenes sp. JG3 is an endemic bacterium from Indonesia, isolated from cultivated cornfield of Central Java. This bacterium is able to produce lipase with fairly high activity. This study aimed to determine the complete sequence of the lipase gene using cloning method. Materials and Methods: The primer pair used in this study (primer forward 5’-ATGACCGAGCTGACTGTAG-3’ and reverse 5’-TCAGGAGGGGTAAATCCAC-3’) were designed based on lipase gene from Alcaligenes faecalis sub sp. faecalis NCIB 8687 and the gene was cloned using pGEM-T Easy Vector. The nucleotide sequence was analyzed using online software such as CLUSTAL Omega, BLASTp, ExPASy and Conseq Server. Results: The complete lipase JG3 gene sequence consists of 357 amino acids from ORF to the stop codon. Lipase JG3 had high similarity to other lipase from genus Alcaligenaceae which was up to 99% and also possessed some characteristic of ABC transporter protein. Conclusion: The designed primer pair based on lipase gene from Alcaligenes faecalis were able to amplify 1071 bp lipase gene of Alcaligenes sp. JG3 and the gene was successfully cloned into Escherichia coli.
Research Article
Effect of Setting Condition on the Gel Properties of Surimi from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
Ita Zuraida, Sri Raharjo, Pudji Hastuti and Retno Indrati
Background and Objective: Differences in gelling properties may be attributed to the chemical composition and setting conditions at a particular temperature employed during the formation of surimi gels. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and effect of setting condition on the gel properties of surimi prepared from Clarias gariepinus (local name "lele dumbo"). Materials and Methods: Kamaboko gel was prepared by incubating the surimi sol at 35°C prior to heating at 90°C, while directly heated gel was prepared by heating the sol at 90°C. Data were subjected to analysis with a one-way ANOVA for comparison of means at a 5% level of significance. Results: The myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein contents were 16.27±0.23 and 2.02±0.06 mg N g–1 surimi, respectively. About 40% of transglutaminase activity was retained in the final surimi. Kamaboko gel showed higher gel strength, hardness and springiness when compared with directly heated gel. However, it had a lower expressible moisture content. Both surimi gels showed no significant difference in the whiteness parameter. Electrophoretic patterns indicated that although myosin heavy chain may undergo polymerisation in both, kamaboko gel and directly heated gel, the extent of polymerisation may be greater in kamaboko gel. Conclusion: The two-step heating involving setting of surimi sol at 35°C prior to heating at 90°C could enhance gel properties of lele dumbo surimi.
Research Article
Formulation and Evaluation of an Adaptogenic Formula to Improve Performance of Athletes Practicing Anaerobic Exercises
Fawzi Amin El-Shobaki, Hany Mohamed Ahmed Wahba, Maha Hanafy Mahmoud, Yusr Ibrahim Kazem, Ibrahim Hassan Badawy and Ahmed Said Zahran
Background and Objectives: The increased physical performance, delayed muscular fatigue, reduced recovery time and improved endurance is the ultimate aim of mostly all athletes. An adaptogenic formula was prepared for athletes of anaerobic exercises for achieving these goals. Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy male taekwondo athletes of age 20.29±0.81 years participated in this program. The formula is composed of whey protein concentrate, L-arginine, root extract of Korean red Panax ginseng and cocoa powder. Participants continued on the program of the adaptogenic formula for 4 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, medical and mood states assessment and physical performance were evaluated. Biochemical evaluation including serum lactate dehydrogenase-5 (LDH-5), creatine kinase (CK), cortisol, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), complete blood count (CBC), liver and kidney functions were followed before and after enrolling in the program. Results: There was a highly significant improvement in recovery time and physical performance that reflects the efficiency of the formula to remove or combat undesirable metabolic by-products of the anaerobic oxidation. Biochemical evaluation revealed a significant reduction in LDH-5, CK, cortisol, a non-significant decrease in MDA, a significant increase in NO and a non-significant rise in TAC, while there was no change in CBC, liver and kidney functions indicating that the prepared formula was safe and could direct the metabolism towards clearance of by-products due to anaerobic oxidation that cause fatigue and cell degradation. Conclusion: It can be concluded that using this formula by athletes of anaerobic exercises leads to getting rid of anaerobic by-products thus helps to combat muscular fatigue, enhance recovery time and improve athletic performance provided that it can be used for longer time.
Research Article
Accumulation of Cynarin, the Hepatoprotective Compound, in Ethephon Treated Callus Cultures of Globe Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.)
Mohamed Kamal El-Bahr, Shawky Abd El-Hamid Bekheet, Ahmed Mohamed Magdy Gabr, Reem El-Shenawy and Yasmine Sayed El Abd
Background and Objective: Cynarin, found in globe artichoke, is one of the substances reported to have very strong effect on hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study is to develop an alternative system for production of hepatoprotective compound, cynarin, from cell cultures of globe artichoke using ethephon as an elicitor. Materials and Methods: Effects of different concentrations (45, 90 and 180 μL L–1) of ethephon used for different periods (6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days) on callus growth, total phenol, antioxidant activity, cynarin accumulation and antiviral activity were evaluated. Results: The different elicitation treatments of ethephon generally increased cell growth. An inverse relationship was observed between fresh weight and ethephon concentrations. The highest value of total phenol was recorded with 90 μL L–1 ethephon at day 12. However, the highest antioxidant activity was obtained with 180 μL ethephon at day 15. Cynarin was detected in the untreated callus at 6, 9 and 12 days only, while it was detected in ethephon treated callus of all days of growth periods. HPLC analysis revealed that application of 90 μL ethephon at 9 and 12 days caused the highest accumulation of cynarin in callus cultures. Untreated and treated callus cultures at day 12 were assayed for their antiviral activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), using the plaque reduction assay. Treated callus with 45 and 90 μL L–1 ethephon registered high antiviral activity while untreated callus gave moderate activity. However, callus treated with 180 μL L–1 ethephon had the lowest antiviral activity. Conclusion: Cynarin was detected in the untreated cell during growth period till 12 days, while it was detected in ethephon treated cell till 21 days of growth period. The current study suggests that ethephon treated callus extracts with highest cynarin content possess higher antiviral activity and could be an effective agent against viral infections.
Research Article
Antioxidant and Anti-diabetic Effects of Cumin Seeds Crude Ethanol Extract
Doha Abdou Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed Hamed and Karem Aly Fouda
Background and Objective: Diabetes is a metabolic disease associated with hyperglycemia. Diabetes is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetic patients leads to damage and dysfunction of many organs. The aim of the present research was studying the anti-diabetic potential of crude ethanol extract of cumin seeds (CEEC). Methods: CEEC was prepared. Diabetes was induced in rats by single dose of streptozotocin (STZ). Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were determined in the CEEC. Free radical scavenging activity of the extract was estimated using DPPH method. Acute toxicity of the CEEC on mice was determined. The effect of CEEC on glucose tolerance was evaluated. Results: The results revealed that total phenolic and total flavonoids were presence in the CEEC by 23.02±0.045 mg GAE g–1 extract and 19±0.132 mg QE g–1 extract, respectively. CEEC showed free radical scavenging activity. Acute toxicity revealed that CEEC was completely safe up to 12 g kg–1 mice. Oral administration of CEEC reduced glycemic levels. CEEC significantly reduced plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats and elevate insulin levels significantly compared with diabetic control. CEEC improved plasma lipid profile, reduced oxidative stress and reduced inflammation in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Crude ethanol extract of cumin seeds may be used as alternative treatment for diabetes. The results indicated that CEEC may be very helpful in the improvement of plasma lipid profile as one of the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and heart failure in diabetic patients.

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