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Journal of Biological Sciences
eISSN: 1812-5719
pISSN: 1727-3048

Editor-in-Chief:  Mehmet Ozaslan
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Research Article
Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-arthritic Activities of Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
Doha A. Mohamed, Eman A. Hanfy and Karem Fouda
Background and Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease associated with elevation of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. The aim of the present research was evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of yarrow aerial parts (YAP). Materials and Methods: Proximate composition of YAP was assessed. Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids contents of YAP were determined. Fatty acids methyl esters of petroleum ether extract of YAP were analyzed. The antioxidant activity of YAP was assessed. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of YAP was evaluated. Anti-arthritic activity of ethanol extract of YAP was evaluated using adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. Results: Chemical compositions of YAP clarified presence of carbohydrate (58.29%), protein (10.33%), fat (3.85%), crude fibers (17.32%) and ash (3.37%). Total phenolic, total flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids were presence in YAP by 0.43±0.003 mg GAE g–1 , 0.31±0.008 mg QE g–1 , 0.96±0.006 mg and 1.52%, respectively. Ethanol extract of YAP showed free radical scavenging activity ranged from 47.8-87.8%. Fatty acids methyl esters analysis revealed that saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were presented by 50.55 and 16.16%, respectively. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid was present by 8.44 and 7.72%, respectively. Ethanol extract of YAP was promising as anti-inflammatory agent in carrageenan induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced mice ear edema. Ethanol extract of YAP possess anti-arthritic effect in AIA in rats through inhibition of swelling in arthritic rats, reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusion: Ethanol extract of YAP showed promising antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities. These activities may be attributed due to the presence of total phenolic, total flavonoids and tannins. Ethanol extract of YAP may be used as anti-arthritic agents in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Research Article
Proximate, Mineral and Phytochemical Composition of Piper guineense Seeds and Leaves
Chinedu Imo, Ojochenemi E. Yakubu, Nkeiruka G. Imo, Ifeoma S. Udegbunam, Silas V. Tatah and Ogochukwu J. Onukwugha
Background and Objective: Piper guineense seeds and leaves are among the plant parts commonly used as spices and also in herbal medicine for the treatment and management of different conditions. The proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Piper guineense seeds and leaves were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods: Piper guineense seeds and leaves were purchased at the new market in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. The healthy parts were selected, air-dried and pulverized. The proximate parameters were evaluated, while AAS and GC-MS were used for the mineral and phytochemical analysis, respectively. Results: Results of the study show that Piper guineense seeds was high in percentage dry matter (94.03±0.21), crude lipid (4.06±0.12) and carbohydrates (65.46±0.85) compare to Piper guineense leaves, while Piper guineense leaves was high in percentage moisture content (6.11±0.01), crude protein (15.17±0.39), crude fibre (20.99±0.16) and ash (11.98±0.03) compared to Piper guineense seeds. The differences in the moisture content and dry matter were statistically non-significant, while the differences in the percentage crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash and carbohydrates were statistically significant. Piper guineense leaves has a high amount of magnesium, calcium, manganese and copper than Piper guineense seeds, while Piper guineense seeds has a high amount of chromium, zinc, iron, potassium, sodium and phosphorus than Piper guineense leaves. A wide range of phytochemicals which possess different biochemical and physiological functions were detected in Piper guineense seeds and leaves. Conclusion: The results showed that Piper guineense seeds and leaves possess nutritional and pharmacological properties. However, some of the phytochemicals detected could possess abortive properties.
Research Article
Prevention of Bacteriophage Adsorption on Bacillus megaterium Cells Via Two Mechanisms
Eman Mokhtar Marei, Tarek Hassan Elsharouny and Adel Mahmoud Hammad
Background and Objective: Bacillus megaterium is commonly used as a phosphate dissolving bio-fertilizer. Presence of bacteriophages in the soil is likely to be the significant environmental agents effecting the protection and activities of such useful bacteria. Receptors play a definitive role in the development of bacterial resistance to bacteriophage infection, the adsorption resistance divided to three groups: Blocking of phage receptors, production of capsule layers and presence of competitive inhibitors. In this study efforts were made to protect B. megaterium against its phage infection. B. megaterium was immobilized system with different concentrations of alginate. Moreover, blocked phage adsorption receptors B. megaterium mutants resistant to phage infection were induced via exposure of B. megaterium to U.V. irradiation at wave length of 240 nm for 20 min. Methodology: Different concentration of sodium alginate (3, 5, 7 and 9 % w/v) and U.V. irradiation of 240 nm at distance of 60 cm from plates for 5, 10, 15..... up to 30 min were used for prepared two different formula of B. megaterium (wild type) bacteria as a resistant to phage infection. Results: Bacillus megaterium isolate efficient in dissolving phosphate and the isolate was non-lysogenic and susceptible to an isolate of lytic bacteriophage. Presence of phage had no effect on immobilized cells of B. megaterium with 7% alginate immobilized and blocked phage adsorption receptors B. megaterium mutant which obtained after 20 min. The blocked phage adsorption receptors B. megaterium was more efficient in decreasing the pH value in its liquid culture than the other mutant after 25 min, therefore, this mutant was selected to be as a bio-fertilizer inoculum. Under green house conditions fertilization of wheat plants inoculated with immobilized cells (7%) and blocked bacteriophage adsorption receptors Bacillus megaterium mutant resistant to phage infection, no significant effect for presence of phages was discover, as compared to those fertilized with the free cells in presence of bacteriophages. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that two mechanisms (Immobilized system and blocked phage adsorption receptors system) can be used to protect B. megaterium from phage attacking.
Research Article
Incorporation of Phenol-formaldehyde-based Black Liquor as an Adhesive on the Performance of Plywood
Tati Karliati, Ihak Sumardi, Atmawi Darwis and Alfi Rumidatul
Background and Objectives: Adhesives are one of the most important ingredients in plywood industry. Black liquor (BL), a liquid comprising waste from the pulping process, was used to reduce adhesive consumption in plywood production. The characteristics of BL and properties of phenol-formaldehyde-based black liquor as an adhesive on the performance of jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) plywood were investigated. Materials and Methods: Adhesive mixes were prepared using phenol-formaldehyde (PF) with the seven kraft BL-based adhesive added (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (w/w). Three-ply panels were produced at glue spread of 180 g cm–2 , then pressurized at 10 kg f cm–2 at a temperature of 140°C for four minutes (PF-BL plywood). The physical and mechanical properties of PF-BL plywood were analyzed according to Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI) and Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS). Results: The crystallinity of BL was 25.88%, mean while methanethiol (CAS) mercaptomethane, ethanedioic acid (CAS) oxalic acid, methanethiobis-(CAS) 2-thiapropane, phenol 2-methoxy-CAS guaiacol, phenol 2,6-dimethoxy-CAS 2,6 dimethoxy phenol were the dominant of chemical components in BL. Jabon plywood bonding with PF-BLadhesiveup to 30% of BL addition, met the SNI and JAS standards. The best treatment for PF-BL plywood was reached at 15% of BL addition. Conclusion: Up to 30% BL addition can be used to reduce PF resin in order to produce PF based plywood. BL was a potential material for decreasing the use of PF-based adhesive for plywood.
Research Article
Prophylactic and Therapeutic Uses of Egyptian Mentha spicata L., Mentha piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. Stalks as Agro-industrial Byproducts
Alaa A. Gaafar, Mohamed U. Nooman, Eman A. Ibrahim, Mamdouh M. Ali and Amr S. Al-kashef
Background and Objective:Searching for new sources of important vital compounds has been and still concern the minds of scientific researchers. Agro-industrial wastes are great examples for such a purpose, it contains many bioactive compounds yet it mostly discarded causing environmental and health problems. This study sought to utilize the mint and basil stalks as agro-industrial wastes, these economically valuable byproducts have not yet been employed in previous studies. Materials and Methods:The aqueous extracts of both mint and basil stalks (wild and cultivated) were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and investigated as anti-inflammatory and antitumor agents. Total flavonoid, tannin and phenolic compounds were evaluated in the resulted extracts. Additionally, HPLC identification was implemented for effective compounds in all aqueous extracts. Results: The finding indicated that wild mint stalks extract possessed the highest levels of phenolic, flavonoid and tannin compounds. Wild mint also found to have a considerable amount of antioxidants and a vigorous in-vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Wild mint stalks extract also projected a significant activity for liver (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cell lines, even more potent than the standard drug as anti-proliferative agent. However, wild and cultivated basil stalk extracts showed a significant activity against (A549) human lung cell line. Conclusion:The results suggest that mint and basil stalks may be useful in the production of an economical and effective treatment for inflammation and cancer diseases, beside recycling a waste to reduce the health and environment hazards.
Research Article
Therapeutic Effects of Parsley Extract in Streptozotocin-induced Gestational Diabetic Rats
Mervat Ahmed Abd Rabou
Background and Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seriously impairs the health of maternity and infant and it leads to pregnancy outcome. Antioxidants are matters that keep the cell injury caused by free radicals. Plants with antioxidant properties have been consumed for centuries as supportive therapy in the diabetes treatment. The present work was designed to assess effect of parsley extract on kidney of diabetic mellitus rats. Materials and Methods: Pregnant albino rats (n = 50) were divided after mating into five groups: First group (control group, C), second group (pregnant rats injected with intraperitoneal single dose of STZ (40 mg kg–1 b.wt.) in the 1st day of pregnancy (D1), third group: Pregnant rats were treated with parsley extract (1 m/150 g b.wt.) from the 1st to the 19th day of gestation post injection with STZ (40 mg kg–1 b.wt.) (D1+P), fourth group: Pregnant rats were injected with STZ (40 mg kg–1 b.wt.) on day 7 of gestation (D7), fifth group: Pregnant rats were treated with parsley extract (1 m/150 g b.wt.) from the 7th to the 19th day of gestation post injection with STZ (40 mg kg–1 b.wt.) (D7+P). The pregnant rats were dissected on the 19th day of gestation, any morphological or anatomical changes were photograph and blood sample were collected to estimate the hematological parameters. In addition, kidney samples of pregnant rats were taken for the histopathological study. Results: Diabetic rats showed some morphological and anatomical changes such as deep neck abscesses, cancer and bleeding in the lung. On the other hand, diabetic mothers, which were treated with parsley leaves extract showed normal morphological structure. According to the haematological and histopathological studies, the parsley leaf extract ameliorate the damage were occurred due to diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Administration of the parsley extract has the ability to decrease the injury of hyperglycemia.
Research Article
Microencapsulation of Grape Phenolic Compounds Using Whey Proteins as a Carrier Vehicle
Atif Farrag, Tamer Mohammed El-Messery, Marwa Mohamed El-Said, Tarek Nour Soliman and Hala Mohamed Fakhr El-Din
Background and Objective: Polyphenols are natural antioxidants have proved to be effective for inhibiting different human diseases such as several types of cancer, coronary artery and cardiovascular diseases, The aim of this work is utilization of whey proteins (WP) with maltodextrin (MD) as wall material for microencapsulated of grape pomace polyphenols. Materials and Methods: Polyphenols were extracted from prepared grape pomace (skin and seed). Water extracted polyphenols were assessment. Microencapsulation of polyphenols was followed using Whey Protein Concentrate/Maltodextrin WPC/MD at different ratios of 100:00, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 and 20:80 with Arabic gum (AG) 0.5% as double wall material. Results: Microencapsulation efficiency and properties of resultant capsules were followed. Polyphenols yield increased with increasing the percentage of pomace prepared concentrations. Extraction of polyphenols at 100°C/1 min with 20% grape pomace recorded highest total phenolic compounds (475.80 mg gallic acid g–1) and Radical Scavenging Activity (RSA) 93.75%. Wall material of WPC:MD ratio of 60:40 recorded highest microencapsulation efficiency of 95.28%. Smallest particle diameter D32 of polyphenol capsule was recorded 822.26 nm with using whey protein only as coated wall material. The obtained results that capsule containing 100 WPC as wall materials had better release of 83% of phenolic compounds. Conclusion: The results indicated that incorporation of MD with WPC improved microencapsulation process and this results agreement with that finding in encapsulation efficiency (EE).
Research Article
Nutritional Supplement Prepared from Whole Meal Wheat Flour, Soya Bean Flour, Flaxseed and Anise Seeds for Alleviating the Menopausal Symptoms
Suzanne Fouad, Salwa Mostafa El Shebini, Maha Abdel-Moaty, Nihad Hassan Ahmed, Ahmed Mohamed Saied Hussein, Aliaa El Gendy, Hend Abass Essa and Salwa Tawfic Tapozada
Background and Objective: Menopause is a physiological phenomenon in women’s life. The decrease of estrogen hormone level leads to appearance of uncomfortable physical and psychological symptoms that have a negative impact on all aspects of female’s daily life. This study aimed to help the female’s body to adapt to diminish estrogen hormone around the time of the menopause by cookies, prepared from whole meal wheat flour, soy bean flour, anise seeds and flaxseed. Materials and Methods: 51 volunteer’ Egyptian females complaining of menopausal symptoms participated in this study. Chemical analysis of supplement was carried out. Detailed gynecological, obstetric, drugs intake and dietary history were recorded. Menopausal symptoms evaluation was carried out using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) for evaluation of somatic, psychological and urogenital symptoms. Relevant anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were reported. Female sex hormones were evaluated. Results: Chemical analysis of the cookies showed that the supplement was enriched in protein, total phenols, fiber and minerals contents. Clinically, the waist circumference, blood pressure and MRS score decreased significantly, while female sex hormone levels improved, Estradiol showed significant increase at the end of the intervention. Conclusion: The consumption of bakery products prepared from soya flour, flaxseed and anise as a diet therapy helps in ameliorating the severity of the menopausal symptoms.
Research Article
Improving the Quality and Shelf-life of Refrigerated Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) Carcasses by Oregano/Citrate Dipping
Robiel Kamel Moawad, Hanna Abdelmonem El-Banna, Ola Saleh Saleh Mohamed and Wafaa Aboelsood Ibrahim
Background and Objective: Consumption of fresh quail meat has become more popular among consumers in recent years, but they are highly perishable. The present article aimed to enhance the quality and shelf-life of fresh quail carcasses through soaking in aqueous solution of cold distilled water (Control; C), Sodium citrate (SC; 2%), Oregano essential oil (OEO; 0.5%) or their combination blend (SC; 2%+OEO; 0.5%; 1:1 v/v) for 10 min, packaged and stored at 4±1°C for 10 days under aerobic conditions. Materials and Methods:Freshness tests (pH, total volatile bases nitrogen "TVB-N"as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances "TBARS"); Consumer acceptance (color, odor "for raw"-appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability "for cooked") and Microbiological evaluation (total viable counts "TVC", psychrotrophic counts "PTC"and enterobacteriaceae counts "EBC") were determined during cold storage. Statistical analysis was done by using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were defined as p<0.05; according to PC-STAT. Results: Significant (p<0.05) incremental pattern was observed in TVB-N, TBARS, pH, TVC, PTC and EBC values in all quail samples during subsequent cold storage by different rates, with the control samples always being the highest. Both natural compounds (SC/OEO) dipping significantly (p<0.05) reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth occurring during refrigerated storage. OEO was more significant (p<0.05) positively affect than SC. In terms of sensory evaluation, the panelists preferred OEO applied quails in comparison to sodium citrate or control samples. Moreover, quail carcasses soaked in OEO+SC in combination exhibited the lowest TBARS values and microbial counts, the highest acceptance scores and the best shelf-life; possibly due to a synergistic effect. Conclusion: Overall, the study revealed that SC+OEO dipping treatment is hereby recommended, since it has been found to keep cold quail carcasses in wholesome state, extended shelf-life, ensure safe consumption for consumers and may offer a promising choice as safe natural preservatives.
Research Article
Secondary Metabolites Production in Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): Chemical Compounds
Syahran Wael, Tri Rini Nuringtyas, Nastiti Wijayanti and Pudji Astuti
Background and Objective: Clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and Perry) used in folk medicinal and traditional plant to treat various diseases. This plant is widely used and has commercial value because the content of secondary metabolite compounds. Differences in the compound content of the plant have contributed to the taxonomic position of the plant. There are many varieties of cloves, i.e., zanzibar, sikotok, siputik and raja. This research was aimed to analyze compounds of cloves var. zanzibar, sikotok, siputik, raja and their phylogenetic relationship. Materials and Methods: The material used leaves of Syzygium aromaticum (Linn.) Var. zanzibar, sikotok, siputik and raja was taken from the plantation of Negeri Lima, Maluku, Indonesia. Extraction using maceration method with n-hexane pro-analysis solvent. Chemical compounds were determined by using GC-MS. GC-MS data from 4 varieties of clove plants were analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical software using cluster analysis based on UPGMA method (unweighted paired group method with arithmetic mean). Results: Varieties zanzibar contained 5 compounds, i.e., eugenol (70.43%), β-caryophyllene (16.79%), α-humulene (3.05%), caryophyllene oxide (2.07%), tetratetracontane (3.12%). Var. raja compounds consisted of 77.24% eugenol, 16.15% β-caryophyllene, 1.52% α-humulene, 5.08% caryophyllene oxide. Var. sikotok consisted of 16.50% β-isoprophylideneglycerol, 48.33% eugenol, 28.80% β-caryophyllene, 2.97% α-humulene, 3.40% caryophyllene oxide. Var. siputik consisted of 80.15% eugenol, 13.44% β-caryophyllene, 1.50% α-humulene, 4.90% caryophyllene oxide. Similarity values are found in var. siputik and raja with a similarity index of 0.25 followed by zanzibar with siputik 11.9 and zanzibar with sikotok 14.34. Conclusion: The highest compound content is 80.15% eugenol found in var. siputik followed by 28.80% β-caryophyllene compound in var.sikotok, α-humulene compound 3.05% in var.zanzibar and 5.08% caryophyllene oxide compound in var.raja.
Research Article
Development of Chewing Gum Containing Mulberry Leaf Extract with Anti-cariogenic Activity against Streptococcus mutans
Pawitra Pulbutr, Sakulrat Rattanakiat, Wanwisa Khunawattanakul, Kritsanee Saramunee and Bunleu Sungthong
Background and Objective: Streptococcus mutans is a major causative pathogen of dental caries, which is a multifactorial oral infection resulting in progressive tooth destruction. Several medicinal plants, including Morus alba (mulberry tree) have been used in folk medicine for the treatment and prevention of dental caries. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial and anti-cariogenic activities of the M. alba leaf extracts against S. mutans and to develop a chewing gum containing the extract. Materials and Methods: The MIC and MBC were determined by using broth dilution and drop plate methods, respectively. Biofilm formation and glycolytic pH drop assays were performed to evaluate the anti-cariogenic activity. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for phytochemical analysis of the extracts. The chewing gum containing the M. alba leaf ethanolic extract was prepared by varying different types and concentrations of ingredients. The freeze-thaw cycle testing was conducted to determine the stability of the developed chewing gum. Results: The ethanolic and aqueous M. alba leaf extracts possessed antibacterial activity against S. mutans with the MICs of 0.14 and 5 mg mL–1, respectively. The ethanolic extract at the sub-MICs significantly inhibited both acid production and biofilm formation of S. mutans. The phytochemical analysis showed that the concentrations of chlorogenic acid and rutin in the ethanolic extract were significantly higher than those in the aqueous extract. Two satisfactory chewing gum formulas with good stability, gum A and B, were obtained. The gum B formula was found to have the better performance. Conclusion: The results from this study demonstrated the anti-cariogenic role of M. alba leaves even at the low concentration of sub-MICs. The prepared chewing gum B formula can potentially be further developed as a medicated chewing gum for the prevention of dental caries in the near future.

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