Background and Objective: Recently, there has been evidence for the accumulation of steroid hormones in the water environment with negative consequences on fish and humans. However, there is paucity of information on how the steroid hormones influence the microbial community in environmental waters. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of 17β-estradiol (E2) and its potential influence on the diversity of Aeromonas spp. Materials and Methods: Wastewater samples were obtained from sewage treatment plants in northern South Africa and fish samples were collected from the Nandoni dam. Aeromonas spp. were isolated using microbiological methods and PCR protocols were used for their identification. A commercial Elisa kit was used for measuring the concentration of 17β-estradiol (E2) from the wastewater samples as well as the fish samples. Results: 17β-estradiol (E2) was found in high concentration in sewage samples varying from 0.32-348.6 pg mL1 while in fish samples, it ranged from 1.1-73.6 pg mL1. There was a tendency of samples with high E2 concentrations to have higher diversity of Aeromonas spp., implying that steroid hormones may serve as nutrient for Aeromonas spp. Aeromonas hydrophila was the most prevalent species (71%), followed by A. sobria with (68%). Conclusion: The presence of Aeromonas spp. in environmental waters and fish that is consumed by the local community poses a serious health concern. The high content of E2 in treated wastewater is of serious concern as well. For the first time, the present study showed a positive impact of E2 on Aeromonas growth.
Murendeni Manavhela, Alfred Sichilima and Amidou Samie, 2020. Distribution and Potential Effects of 17β-Estradiol (E2) on Aeromonas Diversity in Wastewater and Fish Samples. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 23: 278-286.