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Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition
eISSN: 2077-2033
pISSN: 1992-1470

Editor-in-Chief:  Mahomoodally Mohamad Fawzi
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Research Article
Published on April 11, 2018
Chemical Composition and Ameliorative Effect of Tomato on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats
Amnah Mohammed Abdulrahman Alsuhaibani
Background and Objective: Tomatoes are rich in active components, such as polyphenols and carotenoids. This study investigated the chemical composition of tomato fruit and the ability of fruits and their pomace (peel, pulp and seeds) to protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Materials and Methods: The proximate chemical composition and the concentrations of some minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn and K), vitamins (C, A, B1, B2 and B6) and antioxidants (β-carotene, lycopene and total phenolic compounds) were estimated in tomato fruits. About 40 rats were injected subcutaneously with isoproterenol dissolved in normal saline at the dose of 100 mg kg–1 daily for 3 consecutive days to induce acute myocardial infarction. Then, rats were classified into the untreated group (positive control) and four treated groups (tomato peel, seed, pulp and whole fruit). Results: The tomato fruits were rich in carbohydrate, protein and fiber but contained little lipid. Phenolic compounds, vitamin C, lycopene, vitamin A and calcium were detected. Compared to the control group, rats fed tomato peel, seeds, pulp and whole fruit had significantly increased body weight gain and food efficiency ratio. Compared to the control group, the tomato-fed groups had decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides and low- and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A decrease in serum liver enzyme activity and an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the tomato-fed rats were detected. Conclusion: Administration of tomato and its components has protective effects against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.
Research Article
Hypoglycemic Effect of Analog Rice Made from Modified Cassava Flour (Mocaf), Arrowroot Flour and Kidney Bean Flour on STZ-NA Induced Diabetic Rats
Sri Budi Wahjuningsih, Haslina , Sri Untari and Agus Wijanarka
Background and Objective: Analog rice made from modified cassava flour (mocaf), arrowroot and kidney beans contains high level of dietary fiber and resistant starch potentially consumed as functional food, particularly for diabetes mellitus. However, its hypoglycemic property has not been comprehensively investigated. After previous research on analog rice made from mocaf and kidney beans flour as protein source, arrowroot flour was added to the formulation due to its hypoglycemic effect. The aim of the study was to evaluate hypoglycemic effect of analog rice made from mocaf, arrow root and kidney beans on Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, 6 rats each, healthy rats fed with standard feed (H) and three diabetic groups, respectively fed with standard feed (DM), rice variety C4 and mocaf, arrowroot and kidney beans based analog rice (AR). Results: During 4 weeks intervention, feed consumption, body weight and blood glucose level were measured once a week. The results indicated that diabetic rats fed with analog rice (AR)had the highest blood glucose level reduction (55.07%), significantly higher than C4 (18.91%). Total Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) concentration of groups fed with analog rice and rice was 53.96 and 50.76 mmol L–1, respectively. AR group also had higher Langerhans islets of 10.60 than C4 group of 6.80. The analog rice treatment decreased the blood glucose level. Conclusion: The results indicated that RS and dietary fiber was responsible to glucose reduction effect by analog rice diet through SCFA as resistant starch fermentation product in colon.
Research Article
Association Between Major Dietary Patterns and Grades of Knee Osteoarthritis in Women
Afsoun Abdollahi, Masoomeh Hajizadehoghaz, Reza Mohseni, Sima Aliakbar, Zahra Veisy, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Zhila Maghbooli and Khadijeh Mirzaei
Background and Objective: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common progressive joint disease considered as an inflammatory disease in the elderly and one of the main causes of physical disabilities. Limited studies have assessed the relationship between dietary patterns and knee OA. The Objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and different degrees of knee Osteoarthritis (OA) based on Kellgren and Lawrence (K and L) score in a group of Tehranian women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data of 231 patients was diagnosed with different grades of knee OA (age: 52.59±7.69 years). Also, anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected in order to determine fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, hs-CRP, ALT and AST. Physical activity and food intakes information were gathered by physical activity and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) with 147 items. Finally, three major dietary patterns were derived from Principle Component Analysis. Results: Three major dietary patterns were extracted, "Western", "Traditional" and "Healthy". Western dietary pattern (WDP) contains high intake of junk foods, sweets-dessert-high calorie beverages, processed food, coffee and high fat dairy and low intake of fruits and vegetables. Traditional dietary pattern (TDP) characterized by high intake of red meats, organ meats, legumes, onion and potato, olive, eggs and nuts. Also, healthy dietary pattern (HDP) contains high intake of liquid oil, low fat dairy, unrefined grains, white meats and tea. Overall, total variance of the three dietary patterns accounted for 25.8%. In comparison to all patients in the lower tertile, women in the 3rd tertile of WDP were younger and less physically active. Lower physical activity, higher basal metabolic rates and fat free mass variables were observed in the 3rd tertile of the HDP (p<0.05). Among 61.5% of participants who were postmenopausal women (after stratifying based on menopausal status), participants in the higher tertile of TDP predisposed to severe degrees of knee OA (OR: 2.178, 95% CI 1.084-4.374). Conclusion: It is concluded that postmenopausal women with higher adherence to Iranian TDP in comparison to lower tertile of this dietary pattern may prone to knee OA more than two fold, due to inflammatory food groups.
Research Article
Relationship Between Body Composition and Physical Fitness among Royal Malaysia Police Personnel in Selangor, Malaysia
Nur Izzatun Nasriah Nasruddin,, Razalee Sedek and Saiful Irwan Zubairi
Background and Objective: The challenging study of police officers requires high level of physical fitness and good aerobic fitness. The primary aim of the study was to identify the relationship between body composition and physical fitness among Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) personnel in Selangor, Malaysia. Method: A total of 263 male personnel aged 20-39 years were randomly selected from a district police headquarter in Selangor. Anthropometric measurements, including height, weight and waist circumference (WC) were taken. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method. The physical fitness tests consisted of sit-ups, push-ups, standing long jump and a 4×10 m shuttle run. The VO2 max test was carried out to evaluate aerobic fitness. Results: The prevalence of normal, overweight and obesity in this study were 34.6, 43.0 and 22.4%, respectively. Results showed that BF was significantly correlated with number of sit-ups (r = -0.257, p<0.001), push-ups (r = -0.621, p<0.001), standing long jump (r = -0.603, p<0.001) and 410 m shuttle run (r = 0.695, p<0.001). BMI was also significantly correlated with number of sit-ups (r = -0.742, p<0.001), push-ups (r = -0.799, p<0.001), standing long jump (r = -0.765, p<0.001) and 410 m shuttle run (r = 0.787, p<0.001). Body weight also showed significant correlation with number of sit-ups (r = -0.702, p<0.001), push-ups (r = -0.716, p<0.001), standing long jump (r = -0.714, p<0.001) and 410 m shuttle run (r = 0.709, p<0.001). WC was significantly correlated with number of sit-ups (r = -0.643, p<0.001), push-ups (r = -0.671, p<0.001), standing long jump (r = -0.675, p<0.001) and 410 m shuttle run (r = 0.717, p<0.001). Conclusion: All body composition components observed to influence physical fitness component and aerobic fitness among RMP. The RMP should plan specific programs on fitness to improve body composition and enhance overall fitness of their personnel.
Research Article
Resistant Starch Modified Cassava Flour (MOCAF) Improves Insulin Resistance
Jauhar Firdaus, Erma Sulistyaningsih and Achmad Subagio
Background and Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance responsible for the occurrence of various complications. An approach to improve insulin resistance is through consumption of resistant starch type 3 (RS3). A substance that has potential to become RS3 is modified Cassava Flour (MOCAF) made from cassava tubers fermented with lactic acid bacteria. This study assessed the potential of MOCAF and its RS3 to improve insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Twenty four diabetes-induced rats were randomly selected and grouped into 4 groups (normal, MOCAF, RS3 and negative control). They were treated with different diets (standard, MOCAF and RS3) as much as 20 g each day for 4 weeks. In the end of study, blood were collected to measure fasting and post prandial blood glucose, plasma GLP-1, plasma insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR).Stool sample were collected from colon for Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) analysis. Data analysis of insulin was performed using one-way ANOVA test, other data analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis. Results: Fasting blood glucose decreased in MOCAF (446-105 mg dL–1) and in RS3 group (494-97 mg dL–1). Post prandial blood glucose decreased in MOCAF (485-136 mg dL–1) and in RS3 group (526- 96 mg dL–1). Significant higher GLP-1 production was found in normal, MOCAF and RS3 groups compare to negative control group (p = 0.004). RS3 consumption stimulated insulin production higher than MOCAF (p = 0.018). HOMA-IR calculation showed normal value in MOCAF and RS3 groups. The SCFA analysis showed that both MOCAF and its RS3 induce the production of valerate beside the three main fatty acids (propionate, acetate and butyrate). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that both MOCAF and its RS3 had the ability to improve insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Research Article
Long Chain Poly-unsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Rett Syndrome: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial
R.A. Fabio, G. Martino, T. Capri, R. Giacchero, S. Giannatiempo, A. Antonietti, F. La Briola, G. Banderali, M.P. Canevini and A. Vignoli
Background and Objective: Phospholipids fatty acids are major structural components of neuronal cell membranes and play a fundamental role in membrane function, modulating fluidity. Changes in the metabolism of fatty acids have been demonstrated in several neuro-psychiatric disorders both in clinical and animal studies. Also in Rett Syndrome very long chain fatty acid and carnitine levels may be decreased. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes in long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid status and functional neurophysiological, neuropsychological and behavioural functions at three and six months in a trial of long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid supplementation in girls with Rett Syndrome. Materials and Methods: The study included a randomized, 3-6months, omega 3 placebo-controlled, one-way crossover trial with 22 girls with classical Rett Syndrome (mean age 13.25, range 6-20 years). The patients were randomized to long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid (250 mg below 15 kg, 500 mg between 15 and 26 kg or 750 mg if over 26 kg) or placebo (maize oil) for 6 months. Patients underwent computerized EEG (electroencephalogram) video-polygraphic recordings during wakefulness. Detailed, specific assessment tools were used to measure attention and discrimination before and after supplementation. Results: Results show that despite the proven assimilation of long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid, in neurophysiological parameter no statistically significant result emerged. Neuropsychological and behavioural measurements pre-test and post-test showed weak modifications. Conclusion: This study indicates that the effects of long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acid supplementation in girls with RTT in terms of neuropsychological and behavioural parameters are weak.
Review Article
Management of Moderate Acute Malnutrition: Comparison of Different Approaches
Pragati Chaudhary, Mukta Agrawal and Rameshwar Lal Suman
Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) is defined as weight-for-height (WFH) between >-3 to <-2 SD. The MAM remains unidentified if height is not recorded regularly during growth monitoring. These unidentified MAM children suffer from dietary inadequacy as well as infection. If not treated timely and properly, may turn into severe acute malnutrition (SAM) which aggravates the situation. There is lacuna of proper guidelines for MAM management as compared to SAM. The nutritional needs of MAM and SAM children are different. There is need to assess the existing literature on MAM management. Various studies were reviewed for the management of MAM with various approaches such as management of MAM with nutritional counselling, along with provision of dietary supplements and management of MAM with dietary supplementation only. Nutrition education definitely improves the knowledge and practices of mothers and help in the recovery of MAM children. All type of supplementary food help to recover MAM child, however Lipid based ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF)/ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) has better recovery rate than locally produced corn soy blend (CSB). Supplementation and counselling when used together have shown most significant improvement in the nutritional status of MAM children.

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